Curcumine

De WikiPhyto

Nom de la substance

Curcumine

Famille moléculaire

  • Pigment polyphénolique (curcuminoïde) de couleur jaune (colorant alimentaire E100)

Source végétale

Curcuma, Temoe-Lawaq

Propriétés

  • Hypocholestérolémiant
  • Anti-inflammatoire, activateur du facteur de transcription nucléaire PPAR-γ qui joue un rôle dans certains processus inflammatoires [1], [2], activité démontrée sur des modèles d’inflammation aigue et chronique, arthrites, granulomes [3], différentes molécules impliquées dans l’inflammation sont inhibées par la curcumine : phospholipase, lipoxygénase, cyclooxygénase 2, leucotriènes, thromboxane, prostaglandines, NO, collagénase, élastase, hyaluronidase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukine-12 (IL-12) [4], [5], [6], [7], avec une grande sécurité d'emploi
  • Hépatoprotecteur, prévient la cytotoxicité hépatocytaire induite par le tétrachlorure de carbone [8] et le paracétamol [9], [10], le cisplatine [11], préventif vis-à-vis de la cirrhose et de la fibrose hépatique [12], inhibe le processus de fibrose hépatique induit par le tétrachlorure de carbone chez le rat [13]
  • Anti-oxydant [14], [15]
  • Intérêt dans les maladies auto-immunes [16]
  • Protection vis-à-vis de l'inflammation intestinale [17]
  • Inhibe la production d’interleukine et de TNF, chimioprotecteur, inhibe la promotion tumorale [18], [19], favorise l’apoptose des cellules cancéreuses, anti-néoangiogénique, bloque la production de COX-2 par les cellules cancéreuses
  • Inducteur d'apoptose dans certaines cellules leucémiques humaines [20]
  • Potentialise les effets de la gemcitabine dans le cancer du pancréas [21]
  • Association synergique avec le docetaxel dans le cancer du poumon non à petites cellules [22] et dans le cancer de la prostate [23]
  • Inhibition du développement des cancers de peau [24], de l'œsophage [25]
  • Antidiabétique [26]
  • Anti-Alzheimer : bloquerait l’accumulation de protéine bêta-amyloïde et détruirait les plaques existantes, améliore le comportement, la qualité de vie et la longévité sur modèles animaux [27], [28], avec d'autres métabolites secondaires végétaux tels que catéchines et proanthocyanidines du thé vert, curcumine du curcuma, extraits enrichis en bacosides du Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), glycosides de flavones du Ginkgo biloba, acides gras poly-insaturés oméga-3 [29]
  • Neuroprotection dans la maladie de Parkinson [30], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36], pourrait réduire l'accumulation de l'α-synucléine A53T (régulation de la signalisation mTOR/p70S6K) par induction d'autophagie [37], inhibe l'agrégation de l'alpha-synucléine [38], [39], [40], protection mitochondriale [41], [42], [43], inhibition de la monoamine oxydase B [44]
  • Activité antivirale vis-à-vis du virus Chikungunya (avec la résine de Boswellia serrata [45]

Effet thérapeutique

  • Hypercholestérolémie, syndrome métabolique, affections hépatiques
  • Maintien de la rémission dans la colite ulcéreuse quiescente [46]
  • DMLA (dégénérescence maculaire liée à l'âge), la curcumine protège les cellules de l’épithélium pigmentaire rétinien contre les dommages oxydatifs induits par H2O2 [47], elle régule l’expression des biomarqueurs de la prolifération, du stress oxydatif, et de l’apoptose des cellules rétiniennes [48]
  • Cancers, chimioprévention et traitement des cancers du sein [49]
  • Maladies auto-immunes
  • Maladies de Parkinson et d'Alzheimer
  • Arthrites [50]
  • Usage local dans le psoriasis, la sclérodermie (?), associée à l'eucalyptol [51]
  • L'inclusion de la pipérine dans les formulations contenant de la curcumine est fortement recommandée pour inhiber la glucuroconjugaison de la curcumine et améliorer sa biodisponibilité [52]
    • La pipérine améliore la biodisponibilité de divers médicaments en induisant des modifications de la perméabilité intestinale, ainsi qu’une augmentation de la surface absorbante de l’intestin grêle [53]

Effets indésirables

  • Très réduits, rares troubles gastriques
  • Peu d'interactions médicamenteuses
  • La biodisponibilité de la curcumine est faible (mauvaise absorption, métabolisme rapide, élimination systémique rapide), plusieurs pistes sont explorées pour l'améliorer [54], [55] :
    • Usage d’adjuvant comme la pipérine, qui interfère avec la glucuroconjugaison
    • Usage de curcumine liposomale
    • Usage de curcumine encapsulée par des nanoparticules biodégradables (absorption 9 fois supérieure à celle de la curcumine administrée avec de la pipérine) [56]
    • Usage de complexe de phospholipide de curcumine
    • Usage d'analogues structuraux de la curcumine

Bibliographie

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