Carvacrol

De WikiPhyto

Nom de la substance

Carvacrol

Famille moléculaire

Phénol monoterpénique

Source végétale

Propriétés

  • Bactériostatique et bactéricide (surtout en solution éthanolique ou stabilisante telle que l'agar-agar ou les carraghénates) :
    • Vis-à-vis d’Echerichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes [1], Helicobacter pylori [2], Mycobacterium avium [3], Salmonella [4], Bacillus cereus [5], Staphylococcus sp [6] et Staphylococcus aureus [7], surtout en milieu acide [8], activité contre les biofilms bactériens de Staphylocoques [9]
    • Effet additif avec le thymol [10]
  • Effet synergique en association avec les antibiotiques [11]
  • Thymol et carvacrol sont inhibiteurs des pompes à efflux bactériennes, surtout en association synergique [12]
  • Actif contre des souches de Candida résistantes au fluconazole [13], inhibition des biofilms des Candida sp (avec géraniol, thymol) [14]
  • Anti-oxydant et protecteur de l'ADN [15], effet anti-oxydant moindre que celui du thymol [16]
  • Prévient la stéatose hépatique induite par une diète riche en graisses (activation SIRT1-AMPK) [17]
  • Protection du poumon vis-à-vis de la toxicité du methotrexate [18]

Effet thérapeutique

  • Infections diverses

Effets indésirables

  • Moyennement toxique, dose létale par voie orale fixée à 50-500mg/kg
  • Légère hépatotoxicité, associer avec des HE protectrices (citron, carotte)
  • Dermocausticité, éviter l'usage cutané ou muqueux

Bibliographie

  1. Pérez-Conesa D, McLandsborough L, Weiss J. Inhibition and inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 colony biofilms by micellar-encapsulated eugenol and carvacrol. J Food Prot. 2006 Dec;69(12):2947-54. PMID 17186663
  2. G. E. Bergonzelli, D. Donnicola, N. Porta, I. E. Corthésy-Theulaz. Essential Oils as Components of a Diet-Based Approach to Management of Helicobacter Infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 October; 47(10): 3240–3246. PMID 14506036
  3. Wong SY, Grant IR, Friedman M, Elliott CT, Situ C. Antibacterial activities of naturally occurring compounds against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Oct;74(19):5986-90. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00981-08. PMID 18676709
  4. Si W, Gong J, Chanas C, Cui S, Yu H, Caballero C, Friendship RM. In vitro assessment of antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, thymol and cinnamaldehyde towards Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104: effects of pig diets and emulsification in hydrocolloids. J Appl Microbiol. 2006 Dec;101(6):1282-91. PMID 17105558
  5. Ultee A, Gorris LGM, Smid EJ. Bactericidal activity of carvacrol towards the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus. Journal of applied Microbiology 1998, 85, 211-218. [1]
  6. Nostro A, Sudano Roccaro A, Bisignano G, Marino A, Cannatelli MA, Pizzimenti FC, Cioni PL, Procopio F, Blanco AR. Effects of oregano, carvacrol and thymol on Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. J Med Microbiol. 2007 Apr;56(Pt 4):519-23. PMID 17374894 texte intégral
  7. Souza EL, Oliveira CEV, Stamford TLM, Conceição ML, Neto NJG. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2013;44(1):29-35. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000001. texte intégral
  8. Nostro A, Cellini L, Zimbalatti V, Blanco AR, Marino A, Pizzimenti F, Giulio MD, Bisignano G. Enhanced activity of carvacrol against biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in an acidic environment. APMIS. 2012 Dec;120(12):967-73. PMID 23030501
  9. Nostro A, Marino A, Blanco AR, Cellini L, Di Giulio M, Pizzimenti F, Sudano Roccaro A, Bisignano G. In vitro activity of carvacrol against staphylococcal preformed biofilm by liquid and vapour contact. J Med Microbiol. 2009 Jun;58(Pt 6):791-7. PMID 19429756 texte intégral
  10. Lambert RJ, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ, Nychas GJ. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Sep;91(3):453-62. PMID 11556910
  11. Langeveld WT, Veldhuizen EJ, Burt SA. Synergy between essential oil components and antibiotics: a review. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2014 Feb;40(1):76-94. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.763219. PMID 23445470
  12. Miladi H, Zmantar T, Chaabouni Y, Fedhila K, Bakhrouf A, Mahdouani K, Chaieb K. Antibacterial and efflux pump inhibitors of thymol and carvacrol against food-borne pathogens. Microb Pathog. 2016 Oct;99:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.08.008. PMID 27521228
  13. Marcos-Arias C, Eraso E, Madariaga L, Quindos G. In vitro activities of natural products against oral Candida isolates from denture wearers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:119 (26 November 2011. Texte intégral : [2]
  14. Dalleau S, Cateau E, Bergès T, Berjeaud JM, Imbert C. In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Jun;31(6):572-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.01.028. PMID 18440786
  15. Horvathova E, Navarova J, Galova E, Sevcovicova A, Chodakova L, Snahnicanova Z, Melusova M, Kozics K, Slamenova D. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 16;62(28):6632-9. doi: 10.1021/jf501006y. PMID 24955655
  16. Nedyalka V. Yanishlieva, Emma M. Marinova, Michael H. Gordon, Violeta G. Raneva. Antioxidant activity and mechanism of action of thymol and carvacrol in two lipid systems. Food Chemistry, Volume 64, Issue 1, 1 January 1999, Pages 59-66 [3]
  17. Eunkyung Kim, Youngshim Choi, Jihee Jang, and Taesun Park. Carvacrol Protects against Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet by Enhancing SIRT1-AMPK Signaling. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 290104. doi: 10.1155/2013/290104 PMCID: PMC3590501 texte intégral
  18. Şen HS, Şen V, Bozkurt M, et al. Carvacrol and Pomegranate Extract in Treating Methotrexate-Induced Lung Oxidative Injury in Rats. Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. 2014;20:1983-1990. doi:10.12659/MSM.890972. texte intégra
  • Baser KH. Biological and pharmacological activities of carvacrol and carvacrol bearing essential oils. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(29):3106-19. PMID 19075694
  • Lambert R.J.W., Skandamis P.N., Coote P.J., Nychas G.-J.E. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Journal of Applied Microbiology Vol 91 (3) Page 453 - September 2001. [4]
  • Preuss HG, Echard B, Enig M, Brook I, Elliott TB. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of herbal essential oils and monolaurin for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 272: 29–34, 2005. [5]