Thymol

De WikiPhyto

Nom de la substance

Thymol

Famille moléculaire

Phénol monoterpénique

Source végétale

Propriétés

  • Anti-microbien, antibactérien et antifongique [1], antibactérien vis-à-vis d’Escherichia coli surtout en solution éthanolique, ou stabilisante telle que l'agar-agar ou les carraghénates, effet additif avec le carvacrol [2], antistaphylococcique (Staphylococcus aureus) [3]
  • L'effet antimicrobien du thymol résulte d'une interaction entre les constituants phénoliques de l'HE et les fractions lipidiques et protéiques des membranes plasmiques bactériennes [4]
  • Inhibe l'adhésion d'Escherichia coli et de Staphylococcus aureus dans les cellules épithéliales du vagin [5]
  • Effet synergique en association avec les antibiotiques [6]
  • Thymol et carvacrol sont inhibiteurs des pompes à efflux bactériennes, surtout en association synergique [7]
  • Effets synergiques avec d'autres composants des [HE] [8]
  • Antifongique, synergie d’action avec la nystatine [9]
  • Inhibition de Candida albicans [10], inhibition des biofilms des Candida sp (avec carvacrol, géraniol) [11]
  • Anti-oxydant [12], [13], et protecteur de l'ADN [14]
  • GABA-ergique
  • Anti-inflammatoire [15]
  • Immunostimulation non-spécifique, augmentation plasmatique des CD4, CD8, antigènes MHC de classe II, cellules lymphocytaires non-T/non-B [16]
  • Augmente l'activité des macrophages, augmente la phagocytose [17]
  • Immunomodulant, immunosuppresseur [18]
  • Dose limite du thymol dans les aliments établie à 50mg/kg et dans les boissons à 10mg/kg [19]

Effet thérapeutique

  • Antimicrobien, infections bactériennes surtout à tropisme pulmonaire
  • Anti-oxydant

Effets indésirables

  • Rubéfiant, irritation cutanéo-muqueuse
  • Brûlures gastro-intestinales
  • Hépatotoxicité au long cours

Bibliographie

  1. Marchese A, Orhan IE, Daglia M, Barbieri R, Di Lorenzo A, Nabavi SF, Gortzi O, Izadi M, Nabavi SM. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature. Food Chem. 2016 Nov 1;210:402-14. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.111. PMID 27211664
  2. Lambert RJ, Skandamis PN, Coote PJ, Nychas GJ. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J Appl Microbiol. 2001 Sep;91(3):453-62. PMID 11556910
  3. Souza EL, Oliveira CEV, Stamford TLM, Conceição ML, Neto NJG. Influence of carvacrol and thymol on the physiological attributes, enterotoxin production and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from foods. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2013;44(1):29-35. doi:10.1590/S1517-83822013005000001. texte intégral
  4. Juven BJ, Kanner J, Schved F, Weisslowicz H. Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents. J Appl Bacteriol. 1994 Jun;76(6):626-31. PMID 8027009
  5. Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Braga MC, Guffanti ME, Mucci M. Thymol : Inhibitory activity on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus adhesion to human vaginal cells. The Journal of essential oil. 2006, vol. 18, no4, pp. 455-461. [1]
  6. Langeveld WT, Veldhuizen EJ, Burt SA. Synergy between essential oil components and antibiotics: a review. Crit Rev Microbiol. 2014 Feb;40(1):76-94. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2013.763219. PMID 23445470
  7. Miladi H, Zmantar T, Chaabouni Y, Fedhila K, Bakhrouf A, Mahdouani K, Chaieb K. Antibacterial and efflux pump inhibitors of thymol and carvacrol against food-borne pathogens. Microb Pathog. 2016 Oct;99:95-100. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.08.008. PMID 27521228
  8. Pei RS, Zhou F, Ji BP, Xu J. Evaluation of combined antibacterial effects of eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, and carvacrol against E. coli with an improved method. J Food Sci. 2009 Sep;74(7):M379-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01287.x. PMID 19895484
  9. Ricardo Dias de Castro, Trícia Murielly Pereira Andrade de Souza, Louise Morais Dornelas Bezerra, Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira, Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa, Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti. Antifungal activity and mode of action of thymol and its synergism with nystatin against Candida species involved with infections in the oral cavity: an in vitro study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:417 DOI 10.1186/s12906-015-0947-2 texte intégral
  10. Braga P.C., Culici M., Dal Sasso M. Morphostructural alterations of candida albicans induced by thymol. A scanning electron microscopy study. 7th European Congress of Chemotherapy and Infection Florence, October 19-22, 2005.
  11. Dalleau S, Cateau E, Bergès T, Berjeaud JM, Imbert C. In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Jun;31(6):572-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.01.028. PMID 18440786
  12. Braga PC, Dal Sasso M, Culici M, Galastri L, Marceca MT, Guffanti EE. Antioxidant Potential of Thymol Determined by Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils and Cell-Free Systems. Pharmacology 2006;76:61-68.
  13. Nedyalka V. Yanishlieva, Emma M. Marinova, Michael H. Gordon, Violeta G. Raneva. Antioxidant activity and mechanism of action of thymol and carvacrol in two lipid systems. Food Chemistry, Volume 64, Issue 1, 1 January 1999, Pages 59-66 [2]
  14. Horvathova E, Navarova J, Galova E, Sevcovicova A, Chodakova L, Snahnicanova Z, Melusova M, Kozics K, Slamenova D. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jul 16;62(28):6632-9. doi: 10.1021/jf501006y. PMID 24955655
  15. Fernanda Carolina Fachini-Queiroz, Raquel Kummer, Camila Fernanda Estevão-Silva, Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho, Joice Maria Cunha, Renata Grespan, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado, Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman. Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol, Constituents of Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil, on the Inflammatory Response. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 657026. Published online 2012 Jul 5. doi: 10.1155/2012/657026 PMCID: PMC3418667
  16. Walter BM, Bilkei G. Immunostimulatory effect of dietary oregano etheric oils on lymphocytes from growth-retarded, low-weight growing-finishing pigs and productivity. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2004 Mar 15;129(6):178-81. PMID 15052959
  17. Chauhan AK, Jakhar R, Paul S, Kang SC. Potentiation of macrophage activity by thymol through augmenting phagocytosis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Feb;18(2):340-6. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2013.11.025. PMID 24316253
  18. Amirghofran Z, Hashemzadeh R, Javidnia K, Golmoghaddam H, Esmaeilbeig A. In vitro immunomodulatory effects of extracts from three plants of the Labiatae family and isolation of the active compound(s). J Immunotoxicol. 2011 Oct-Dec;8(4):265-73. doi: 10.3109/1547691X.2011.590828. PMID 21711089
  19. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/f?./temp/~xe8jnF:1
  • EMEA List of references supporting the assessment of Thymus vulgaris L. and Thymus zygis L., herba. références